A Norwegian injection hub for CO2 storage
Gismarvik CO2 terminal
The planned CO2 terminal at Gismarvik will enable CO2 mitigation and permanent storage on a massive scale. As an CO2 injection terminal, it will have a capacity for intermediate storage of 20 – 24 million tonnes CO2 before transported via pipeline and permanently stored safely below seabed in the Northern Sea.
CO2 terminal for intermediate storage
20 – 24 million tonnes CO2 annually
Haugalandet Industrial Park, port of Gismarvik
CO2 transport via pipeline to offshore reservoirs
The Gismarvik CO2 terminal can be a break through for the development of local and Norwegian CCS value chains. With an accessible location and deep water quay, we will enable CO2 transport and storage for both local and European customers.
A recent study done by SINTEF and CCS Haugalandet – a local CCS cluster, shows that an onshore terminal for intermediate CO2 storage enables cost efficient CCS value chains for local customers and industry. The closer the terminal is, the lower costs. In the Haugaland CCS-cluster alone there is potential to reduce emissions by 1,5 million tonnes annually.
The Gismarvik CO2 terminal is a technical mature project with robust operations and economics of scale. With it’s location on the Norwegian coast, the CO2 terminal will be close and available for several offshore CO2 storages.
CO2 terminals and hubs as a concept will enable the development of a land-based CCS industry in Norway, thus bridging the gap between European customers and the Norwegian Continental Shelf. With the experience of using CCS technology in Norway for decades, and the estimated storage capacity offshore equivalent to the EUs CO2 emissions over 25 years – Norway is the perfect host for a CCS industry.
We have ambitions to make the Gismarvik CO2 terminal a leading hub for CO2 injections, connecting the onshore terminal to several offshore reservoir projects and enabling safe and cost efficient CO2 storage for both European and domestic customers.
The CCS industry in Norway is developing rapidly, as well as the need and demand for reservoir storage from European customers. We want to be at the forefront of this development using technology solutions that is scalable and accessible.
The CCS industry explained
What does CCS stand for? Why is it defined as one of the key measures by the IPCC (UN’s intergovernmental panel on climate change) to prevent and reverse climate change? How does the technology work, and why is Norwegian industry key to develop the CCS market?
We know it’s a lot to take in. The most important thing to remember about CCS is that it is crucial in reducing emissions in the short run, and in the long run enabling negative emissions.
CCS definition and climate impact
CCS stands for carbon capture and storage. Today our energy demand is dependent on fossil fuels, making the fossil economy the largest contributor in the energy market. The world is dependent on decarbonizing large industries such as the oil- and gas industry, but also other hard-to-abate sectors. We are enabling a complete value chain for CCS, meaning that third parties can store emissions from production sites in offshore storage locations. Moving forward, the carbon market will grow as a key contributor in the energy market and becoming a trillion dollar market on it’s own.
How does CCS work?
Carbon capture and storage involves three steps – capture, transport and storage.
During capture, CO2 is separated from other gases produced at large industrial facilities, such as steel mills, cement plants, petrochemical facilities, coal, and gas power plants, or from the atmosphere. There are several capture methods in use – all are proven and effective, with different methods applied based on the emissions source.
Once separated, the CO2 is compressed for transportation. This means increasing pressure so that the CO2 behaves like a liquid. The compressed CO2 is then dehydrated before being sent to the transport system. Pipelines are the most common mode of transport for large quantities of CO2. For some regions of the world, CO2 transport by ship is an alternative.
Following transport, the CO2 is injected into deep underground rock formations, often at depths of one kilometre or more, where it is safely and permanently stored. These rock formations are similar to what has held oil and gas underground for millions of years. Close to 300 million tonnes of CO2 has already been safely and successfully injected underground. Fortunately, there is an abundance of storage available around the world and on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS).
The Norwegian CCS potential
The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) has an estimated storage capacity of 83 billion tonnes CO2, which is equivalent to Norway’s total emissions for 1500 years, or the EU’s total emissions for 25 years. The climate impact with global scale CCS industry in Norway is substantial. Norway has the resources and needed infrastructure to build this industry, and competence and experience from over 50 years from the oil- and gas industry. We are the perfect host for a global CCS industry, contributing on large scale reduced emissions and enabling a solid carbon market. The clean sky is the limit!